Situated in province of Fars, about 110 km south of Shiraz, Firuzabad was known as Gōr (Jūr) or Ardašīr-Xwarra until the 10th century CE. In most sources Ardaxšīr-e Pābakān, founder of Sasanian dynasty, is named as the founder of the city. Based on archeological evidence as well as Tabari’s report, the city was founded before the important battle in which Ardashir defeated the last Arsacid king, Ardavan (Artabanus IV) in April 28, A.D. 224. The old city of Firuzabad was a in shape of perfect circle of 1,950 m diameter and it was divided into twenty sectors and surrounded by a main wall made of stamped clay, a ditch 35 m wide, and an inner-wall. Firuzabad lost its status as the capital as early as the reign of Shapur I, but nonetheless the city continued to be a famous town and district up to early Islamic times. There are however few noteworthy Islamic monuments in Firuzabad. A famous tower or mil in the circular city is today among the only visible and standing remains in the city. Close to the site of ancient Firuzabad are the so-called Palace of Ardashir, as well as several inscriptions of Ardashšīr-e Pābakān and the fortress of Qal’e Dukhtar, for which see separate entries.
Under the name Ardashir-Khorra, meaning “glory of Ardashir”, it was one of the administrative divisions (Kura) of Sasanians in province of Fars. The province was an important center for Zoroastrians and three centuries after the Arab invasion, historian Mas’udi talks of the fire temple of Ardashir-Khorra being in existence which shows a continuous Zoroastrian tradition in the region. The name Gur was eventually changed during the Buyid period to Firuzabad (victory town).
Also close to the city of Firuzabad the ruins of a palace, called Qal’a-ye Doktar can still be seen. This was either an early residence of Ardashir or a high residence overlooking the road from Staxr to Firuzabad. It was probably built at the same time as the round city and later was abandoned in favor of the palace built later next to the spring lack. However the coins found in Qal’a-ye Doktar show that the building regained its importance near the end of Sasanian era.
- Bosworth, C.E.”Ardashir-korra,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2002.
- Ghirshman, R. “Firouzabad,” Bulletin de l’institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire 46, 1947, pp. 1-28.
- Huff, Dietrich. “Firuzabad,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2002.
- ________. “Zur Rekonstruktion des Turmes von Firuzabad,” Istanbuler Mitteilungen 19/20, 1969/70, pp. 319-38.
- ________. “An Archaeological Survey in the Area of Firuzabad, Fars,” Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran 1973, Tehran, 1974, pp. 155-79.
- ________. “Fīrūzābād,” in Y. Kīānī, ed., Šahrhā-ye Īrān II, Tehran, 1366 Š./1987, pp. 75-117.
- Nöldeke, Th. tr., Geschichte des Artachšîr-i Pâpakân, Göttingen, 1879.