The Political History of Ērān in the Sasanian Period

Ardaxšīr I was able to defeat Ardawān (Artabanus IV) at the plain of Hormozgān
in 224 CE and established the Sasanian Empire. From then on Ardaxšīr took the title of
šāhān šāh “King of Kings” and began the conquest of a territory which he called Ērān.1
But before this fateful battle between the last Parthian king and the institutor of the
Sasanian dynasty, much had happened internally and externally in order for this new
dynasty to come to power. To the west, the Roman Empire was going through one of its
worst centuries, an anxious period, when its future seemed unsure. Roman armies whose
allegiance lay with their generals, brought chaos to the empire and one “Barrack
Emperor” followed another, with some ruling for a very short time.