Inscriptions-posts

Šābuhr Sakānšāh Inscription at Persepolis (ŠPs-I)

This is one of the two Middle Persian inscriptions from the time of Šāpūr II’s rule at Persepolis. This first inscription is from the second year of the reign of Šāpūr II. Based on this inscription we may understand that Šāpūr II had defeated his eastern foes and established Sasanian domination over the Kūšāns. According to this inscription, the eastern boundary of the Sasanian Empire under Shapur II includes Sind, Sistān, and Turān.

 

Many European travelers and gentleman scholars as well as local Persians have recorded the inscription (Ouseley, Stolze). We know of Persian interest and attachment to Persepolis from the time of the Fratarakas in the Seleucid period to that of the local Persian kings. There are graffiti at Persepolis which may reflect the local rulers of Persis at the time of the Arsacids, or is from the time of early Sasanians. We include here one graffito here, as we were able to photograph them during a trip to Persepolis. Could it be possible that some of the graffiti are from the time of this visit by Šāpūr Sakānšāh? The graffito presented here (by Daryaee), is identical with the image of Pāpag on one coins. During the Buyid period there was a visit by one of the Buyid rulers, who we are told was curious enough to ask the content of the inscription from a local Zoroastrian priest and a memorial inscription was made to commemorate it.

The inscription has been studied several times, beginning with Herzfeld, and also by S.H. Nyberg in his A Manual of Pahlavi. R.N. Frye also translated the inscription, as well as Back, followed by three Persian translations, by Oryan; Akbarzadeh & Tavousi and Daryaee.

Bibliography:

 

  • Akbarzadeh, D. & Tavousi, M. Pahlavi Inscriptions, Tehran, 2006.
  • Back, M. Die Sassanidischen Staatsinschriften, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1978, p. 281.
  • Daryaee, T. “Katībeye Šāpūr Sakānšāh dar Takht-e Jamšīd,” Farhang, vols. 37/38, 1380.
  • Daryaee, T. “Shapur II,” Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. E. Yarshater, 2009.
  • Frye, R.N. “The Persepolis Middle Persian inscriptions from the time of Shapur II,” Acta Orientalia, vol. 30 1966.
  • Gignoux, Ph. Glossaire des inscriptions pehlevies et parthes, Corpus Inscr. Iran., Suppl. Ser., vol. 1, London, 1972.
  • Frye, R.N. “The Persepolis Middle Persian inscriptions from the time of Shapur II,” Acta Orientalia, vol. 30 1966.
  • Herzfeld, E. Paikuli. Monument and Inscription of the Early History of the Sasanian Empire, 2 vols., Berlin, 1924.
  • Nyberg, H.S. A Manual of Pahlavi, Otto Harrassowitz, 1964.
  • Oryan, S. Manual of Middle Iranian Inscriptions, ICHO, Tehran, 1382.
  • Razmjou, Sh. “Herzfeld and the Study of Graffiti at Persepolis”, Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies 1900-1950, eds. A. Gunter & S. Hauser, Brill: 315-341.

MP by Touraj Daryaee

Transliteration:

BYRH spndrmt QDM ŠNT 2 mazdysn bgy šhpwhly MLKAn MLKA ’yr’n

W ’nyr’n MNW ctry MN yzd’n PWN ZK y’wly MT šhpwhly sk’n MLKA hndy

skstn W twrstn OD YMA dnby BRE mazdysn bgy ’whrmzdy MLKAn MLKA ’yr’n W ’nyr’n

MNW ctry MN yzd’n MN BBA OLEšn ORHYAn SGDH YBLWN W PWN ZNE l’sy ZY QDM

sthly BYN OL skstn OZLWN W PWN krpkyhy LTNH OL ststwny YATWN APš

LHMA BYN LAZNH BYTA AŠTH APš wlhl’n ZY nhw ’whrmzdy skstn hndlcpt

(W) nrshy ZY mgw ZY wr’c’n W dyny ZY lywmtr’n ZY zlngy štrp W nrsky ZY dp(ywr)

(W) ’p’lyk p’ls’z’t W sk’z’t W zlngk’n W plystky MN hmk p’tkwsn W štldry LWTH

YHWWN HWHnd APš LBA š’tyhy krty APš yzd’n krtk’n prm’t krtny APš

ABYtr W nyd’k’n ’plyny krty APš šhpwhry MLKAn MLKA ’plyny krty APš šhpwhry

MLKAn MLKA ’plyny krty APš NPŠH

’plyny krty APš ARHc ’plyny krty MNW ZNE m’ny krty

[y]zdty y’d

 

Transcription:

māh Spandarmad abar sāl II mazdēsn bay Šābuhr šāhān šāh Ērān

ud anērān kē čihr az yazdān pad ān jār ka Šābuhr Sagān-šāh Hind

Sagastān ud Tūrestān tā drayāb danb pus mazdēsn bay Ohrmazd šāhān šāh Ērān ud anērān

kē čihr az yazdān az dar ōy-šān bayān namāz burd ud pad ēn rāh ī abar

Staxr andar ō Sagastān šud ud pad kirbagīh ēdar ō Sadstūn mad u-š

nān andar im xānag xward u-š Warhahrān ī Naxw-ohrmazd Sagastān handarzbed

ud Narsēh ī mow ī warāzān ud dēn ī Rēw-Mihrān ī zarang šahrab ud Narsēh ī dibīr

ud abārīg pārs-āzād ud sag-āzād ud zarangān ud frēstag az hamāg pāygōsān ud šahryār abāg

būd-hēnd u-š wuzurg šādīh kard u-š yazdān kirdagān framād kardan u-š

pidar ud niyāgān āfrīn kard u-š šābuhr šāhān šāh āfrīn kard u-š šābuhr šāhān šāh

āfrīn kard u-š xwēš afrīn kard u-š ōy-iz āfrīn kard kē ēn mān kard

[y]azd yād

 

Translation:

In the month of Spandarmad, in the second year of the Mazda-worshipping lord, Šāpūr king of kings of the Iranians and non-Iranians, whose lineage is from the gods, at this time when Šāpūr Sagān-šāh (ruler of) India, Sīstān and Turān, to the shores of the sea, the son of the Mazda-worshipping lord, Ohrmazd king of kings of the Iranians and non-Iranians, whose lineage is from the gods, made salutations at the court of the lord, and went on this road through Stakhr to Sīstān, and for piety he came here to Sadstūn (Hundred Column [hall]), he ate food (lit. bread), in this place, accompanying him was Wahrām ī Naxw-Ohrmazd the Councilor of Sīstān, and Narseh, the priest of Warāzān, and Dēn of Rēw-Mihrān from Zarang, the Governor, and Narseh the Scribe, and other Persian and Sīstānī nobles and messengers from all provinces and lord(s), they made a great celebration, he ordered the worship of the gods, his father and ancestors were praised, he praised Šāpūr, king of kings, and he praised himself, and he also praised those who built this place, may god remember (them)

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